Axillary nerve dysfunction is nerve damage that leads to a loss of movement or sensation in the shoulder.
Neuropathy - axillary nerve
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Axillary nerve dysfunction is a form of peripheral neuropathy. It occurs when there is damage to the axillary nerve. This is the nerve that helps control the deltoid muscles of the shoulder and the skin around it. A problem with just one nerve, such as the axillary nerve, is called mononeuropathy.
The usual causes are:
Long-term pressure on the nerve
Pressure on the nerve from nearby body structures
Entrapment creates pressure on the nerve where it passes through a narrow structure.
The damage can destroy the myelin sheath that covers the nerve or part of the nerve cell (the axon). Damage of either type reduces or prevents the movement of signals through the nerve.
Conditions that can lead to axillary nerve dysfunction include:
Body-wide (systemic) disorders that cause nerve inflammation
Call for an appointment with your health care provider if you have symptoms of axillary nerve dysfunction. Early diagnosis and treatment increase the chance of controlling symptoms.
Preventive measures vary, depending on the cause. Avoid putting pressure on the underarm area for a long periods. Make sure casts, splints, and other appliances fit properly. When you use crutches, learn how to avoid putting pressure on the underarm.
Steinmann SP, Spinner RJ. Nerve problems about the shoulder. In: Rockwood CA, Matsen FA III, Wirth MA, et al., eds. The Shoulder. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2009:chap 27.
Luc Jasmin, MD, PhD, Department of Neurosurgery, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles and Department of Anatomy, University of California, San Francisco, CA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.